What To Do If You're Stuck
When stuck on ice, snow, mud, or wet grass, the vehicle should be rocked gently back and forth by repeatedly shifting the gear lever from drive to reverse on automatic transmissions or reverse to second on manual transmissions. This should be done with as little tire spinning as possible. The force caused by a rapidly spinning tire can cause an explosion by literally tearing the tire apart. Some vehicles are capable of bringing a tire to this failing point in as little as five seconds.
Using Your Spare
Many newer vehicles come equipped with a temporary spare. These tires are usually much smaller than the other tires on your car. It is important to realize that these spares have far more limitations than a typical tire, including speed and recommended driving distance. Some spare tires even require the use of a special canister to inflate the tire.
You should familiarize yourself with the spare by reading the owner's manual and the sidewall of the spare. And remember, check the air pressure of the spare frequently.
Three main factors contribute to the loss of traction on wet roads known as hydroplaning:
Vehicle speed. As speed increases, wet traction is considerably reduced.
Water depth. The deeper the water, the sooner you will lose traction, although even thin water layers can cause a loss of traction, even at low speeds.
Tire tread depth. As your tires become worn, their ability to resist hydroplaning is reduced.
Since hydroplaning can result in a complete loss of traction and vehicle control, you should always reduce speed with consideration to the traffic around you.
Driving On Ice And Snow
All-season tires are designed to provide higher levels of snow traction than non-all-season tires. Your tires may be all-season tires if you find the letters "M+S" molded into the sidewall near the bead. These letters mean "Mud and Snow." However, because of differences between US and European regulations, if you require all-season tires, you should always check with your tire retailer that the tires you have chosen are suitable. You should not rely on the "M+S" marking alone.
Even the best all-season tires will not provide acceptable levels of traction if you drive too fast in snow/ice conditions, You should allow at least 12 times more stopping distance on wintry roads.
The fitment of winter tires is strongly recommended when temperatures are below 70C. Winter tires offer significantly improved braking and traction over summer and all-season tires. Because of this, in some countries, their fitment is mandatory. However, even where fitment is optional, the safety benefits in all conditiuons when the temerature is below 70C are overwhelming. At this temperature, winter tires provide better grip and traction on dry and wet roads as well as snow and ice conditions.
For Safe Winter Driving
Fit winter tires.
Reduce your speed. Even good road conditions can deteriorate quickly.
Increase your stopping distance - at least 12 times more than on dry roads. You may not always need that much distance, but when you do, you'll be glad you were playing it safe.
Check the condition of your tires. Worn tires provide less grip